Already online my paper “Anatomy of Language”. I’m thrilled with this paper because it is the first one I write and publish in my mother thong, the Portuguese.
It is significant topic because the paper attempts to draw an evaluation upon the empirical methods and theoretical frameworks adopted in the study of metaphor. The perspective in this paper was particularly to look at the conception of metaphor in neuroscience and psycholinguistics, against the notion of language games. The major aim was to see whether this notion of metaphor as a language game remained hidden, or not, from empirical lenses of behavioural paradigms (e.g. times response), and brain pictures (imagiology).
The linguistic turn could not anticipate that the 21st century would be dominated by cognitive states of linguistic encoding penetrating propositional attitudes, - even in the case of metaphors. Wittgenstein, on his return to philosophy, did substitute the conception of language as exclusively a set of axioms, and meanings of truth conditions by the notion of language games and forms of life. I guess he would agree with our Portuguese poet, there are metaphors, which are more real than the people walking on the street (BS, Book of the Disquiet).
I am thankful to the editors of Kairos, and, of course, to the reviewers who helped me bringing my ideas into clarity. *
Já se encontra disponível online o meu artigo “Anatomia da Linguagem”. Estou muito feliz com este artigo por ser o primeiro artigo que escrevo e publico na minha língua materna, o português.
Parece-me um tema relevante porque tenta fazer uma avaliação sobre os métodos empíricos e enquadramentos teóricos utilizados para o estudo da metáfora. A perspectiva neste artigo foi sobretudo olhar para a concepção de metáfora adoptada na neurociência e psicolinguística e compará-la coma sua concepção enquanto "jogos de linguagem". O objectivo foi perceber se a dimensão de jogo de linguagem ficava, ou não, escondida por detrás de paradigmas comportamentais (tempos resposta) e imagens cerebrais (imagiologia).
A viragem linguística não podia antecipar que o século XXI da ciência cognitiva ficaria dominado por estados cognitivos de codificação linguística a penetrar atitudes proposicionais, - até mesmo no caso da metáfora. Wittgenstein, no seu regresso a Filosofia, substituiu a concepção da linguagem como exclusivamente um conjunto de axiomas e de significados de condições de verdade pela noção de jogos de linguagem e formas de vida. Parece-me que ele concordaria com o nosso poeta, que nos diz, há metáforas mais reais do que a gente que anda na rua (BS, Livro do Desassossego).
Estou grata aos editores da Kairos e, claro, à preciosa ajuda dos revisores por me ajudarem a tornar mais claras as minhas ideias.
Nova Institute of Philosophy (IFILNOVA) Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, New University of Lisbon (FCSH/NOVA) Scientific Organization: Nuno Venturinha
6-7 June 2017
Invited speakers include: Marco Brusotti (Technical University of Berlin / University of Salento) Michel Le Du (University of Strasbourg) Andrew Lugg (University of Ottawa) Sofia Miguens (University of Porto) Constantine Sandis (University of Hertfordshire) Vicente Sanfélix (University of Valencia) Genia Schönbaumsfeld (University of Southampton)
The volume aims to familiarise experimental philosophers (professional academics, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates) with empirical methods that go beyond questionnaire-based surveys and experiments, and to explore the contribution these methods can make to current and traditional debates in philosophy. Methods of interest include, but are not limited to, methods from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience (e.g., fMRI), psycholinguistics (e.g. eye tracking, ERP), computational linguistics and the digital humanities more widely (data mining, etc.), as well as behavioural economics. Contributions should illustrate the use of a particular method or set of methods in experimental philosophy either by reporting a fresh study, or by reference to recent studies run by the author(s) and others, or ideally by a combination of the two. Studies that combine such ‘alternative’ methods with more familiar questionnaire-based approaches are welcome.
Contributions should provide accessible explanations of the ‘alternative’ methods used, with discussion of their strengths and limitations. Each chapter should combine presentation, demonstration, and discussion of a chosen (set of) method(s) with an explanation and assessment of the contribution made to traditional philosophical concerns or ongoing philosophical debates. Contributions to any area of philosophy are welcome, provided the concerns or debates at issue are of reasonably general interest. Contributions to the Concept Project (studying concepts and folk theories) and Warrant Project (studying the evidentiary value of intuitions) would be particularly welcome.
Confirmed contributors include Shaun Nichols, Mark Alfano, Arianna Betti, Cailin O’Connor, Eugen Fischer, Matthew Inglis, Jonathan Livengood, Eric Schwitzgebel, Justin Sytsma, and Jen Cole Wright.
The default word limit for submitted papers is 10,000 words.
If potentially interested in contributing, please contact the volume editor: Eugen Fischer,
Deadlines: 500-word abstracts to be submitted to the volume editor before July 1st, 2017. Chapters will be due by January 31, 2018.
Empedocles is the first to bring forth a theory of color. In color vision, he says, the eye somehow takes in, or physically ‘ingests’ material effluences emitted by the distal object. Demokritos further attempted to explain the characteristics of particular colors by reference to the characteristics of the atoms constituting them. Like Demokritos, Plato also reckoned with self-radiating objects; but Plato thought that their rays meet and mingle with the pure fire (rays) placed in all human eyes by the gods. In the Timaeus, Plato states that particles coming from other bodies fall upon the sight. Thus seeing (or not seeing) depends on the size, strength and speed of the rays emanating from the objects, while perception of the various colors depends also on that process (see Benson, 2000). Aristotle rejected the notion that a fiery ray emanated from the eye and reflected back from the objects to create sight—on the grounds that if this were so, night vision would be normal. By the same token he objected to the theory of emanations from objects, since the eye does not perceive them when the objects are pressed against the closed eye. He postulated the necessity of a medium between the eye and its percept, and reached back to the Presocratic translucence (diaphanes), which exists in water, air and translucent objects. Light is the agent (energeia) that reveals translucence as an incorporeal state ranging from bright to dark. Insofar as this flows into objects it ceases being mere light and reveals color as well as their substantiality. The color of the object in turn puts the medium itself in motion and this is transmitted to the eye. Obviously, the role of light is to make this process possible, but Aristotle attributes no movement to it, whereas the resulting color is an activator (kinetikon) of the medium (Benson, 2000). Aristotle’s theory of color contrasts thus with Empedocles and Plato, in the sense that “the assimilation of the sensible form without the matter of the perceived object” is how Aristotle defines perception: “color is a power to move, or alter, what is transparent”. He draws a clear distinction between the physiological activity in the eye and the sensory presentation of color to the perceptive part of the soul. Aristotle conceives of light as incorporeal activity. It is a state of a potentially transparent medium, a state akin to, or equivalent to, a state of illumination.
For Aristotle, a substance together with its accidents forms a certain whole. The whole would seem to be such that substance is the first part, after which come quality, quantity, and the other accidents (Metaph. XII, in init.) (Brentano, 1981, p. 82). Aristotle is convinced that whole and part can never be actual simultaneously. At the root of his theory of categories is a theory of the relation of whole and part. If the whole is actual, then the part is merely potential. How does this applies to a thing extended in space? Conceptually, the accident always contains the substance, hence the real unity of the accident. Concept red contains, in Aristotle’s view, the concept colored, and the concept colored contains the concept sensibly qualitative. What is in question in Aristotle’s theory of categories is thus that it is not the plurality of individual parts; rather all attributes entering into the definition determine one and the same individual. Like any other scientific terms, “category” as undergone several changes of meaning in the course of history, Brentano himself disagreed in several arguments with Aristotle (see Brentano, 1981, part II pp. 81-89). Nevertheless, “this much is certain: he [Aristotle] thought that there was a sense of the term being for each category; and in making the classification, he wanted to distinguish as many different senses of being” (Brentano, 1981, p. 90). Thus, to arrive at the true understanding of perception, we must see the distinction between a subject and that which the subject underlies, such as sensible, quality, place, real time, extension, shape, – in fact, substantial determinations.
 For a detailed analysis, see Kalderon, M. E. (2015). Form without matter: Empedocles and Aristotle on color perception. OUP Oxford.
References Aristotle, (1998). Metaphysics translated with an introduction by H. Lawson-Tancred. Penguin. Benson, J. L. (2000). Greek color theory. Greek Color Theory and the Four Elements, 6. Art, Architecture & Art History at ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst. Brentano, F. (1981). The Theory of Categories. Melbourne International Philosophy Series, Vol. 8. London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Closely linked to borders and bounds, boundaries are lines that mark the limits of an area. Taking as our foundational assumption that all boundaries involve processes and practices of embeddedness as well as transgressions of socio-cultural and eco-political spheres, this conference seeks to mark an inquiry into specific kinds of boundary-crossings that involve embodiment and inhabitation for Asian-Australian land/mind/body-scapes. Theories of embodiment recognise the critical politics of emplacement associated with the body as well as such situatednesses as sites of performance. What happens when such locations shift due to boundary crossings in terms of family, bloodlines, gender, race, class, caste, nation, region, sexuality, religion, among others? How do embodiments that cross boundaries inhabit their place and being, both in the Bourdieusian sense of the habitus as well as that of phenomenologists like Merleau-Ponty? The conference invites papers, presentations and performances on how Asian-Australian embodiments are made meaningful in changing contexts of communities and crossings, how inhabitations over space, time and history challenge our ideas of being and body.
6.54 My propositions serve as elucidations in the following way: anyone who understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical, when he has used them—as steps—to climb beyond them. (He must, so to speak, throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it.) He must transcend these propositions, and then he will see the world aright.
I am doing exploratory research on the nature of color perception. In order to develop operational definitions, could I ask you to help me out by ordering the following colored squares? Please send a private message (below) with your response/order. I know this is not an easy task, thank you so much for helping me out here!
Here are the Top 20 journals in Philosophy according to Leiter reports (2015),
1. Philosophical Review 2. Nous 3. Journal of Philosophy 4. Mind 5. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research 6. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 7. Philosophical Studies 8. Philosopher's Imprint 9. Philosophical Quarterly 10. Analysis 11. Synthese 12. Erkenntnis 13. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 14. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15. American Philosophical Quarterly 16. European Journal of Philosophy 17. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 18. Ratio 19. Ergo 20. Philosophical Perspectives
Runner-up: Dialectica (trailing #20 by just four votes)
Held annually since 1923, the Australasian Association of Philosophy Conference is hosted in 2017 by The University of Adelaide, South Australia. The conference is designed to give professional philosophers and philosophy postgraduate students the opportunity to present and discuss papers in all areas of philosophy. Each year it attracts around 300 philosophers worldwide. The conference will begin with the AGM of the Association at 4.30pm on Sunday 2 July 2017, prior to the Opening Reception and the Presidential Address (delivered by Professor Daniel Stoljar). It will conclude with the Conference Dinner on the evening of Thursday 6 July. Register Here.